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Typhoid is an infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi which causes severe symptoms in the digestive system. It can be life-threatening, but if treated early antibiotics are effective.
The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. It is primarily for this reason that it is mainly seen in areas with poor sanitation/living conditions.
The incubation period is 10 to 20 days and depends on, among other things, how large a dose of bacteria has been taken in.
In the mild disease, the bacterium is eliminated very early in the course of the disease and there are perhaps only mild symptoms. It is possible to become a healthy carrier of infection.
A more serious case of typhoid may include high temperature, sweating, cough, headache, vomiting and constipation (diarrhoea in children).
Hepatitis A is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is spread through contaminated water and food, especially shellfish or through person to person contact where personal hygiene is poor.
Hepatitis A occurs worldwide, mostly in countries where sanitation is poor. It is now rare in Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. Most cases imported into Britain have been contracted in the Indian sub-continent.
The illness of all forms of hepatitis is similar. Symptoms include mild fever, gastro-intestinal upset, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Jaundice may also occur. Infection with hepatitis A results in lifelong immunity.